Oromia-Ethiopia: Democratizing an Empire is Self-Deception – Gadaa.com Oduu
Many Oromo nationalists are, once again, debating on a age-old subject of what fits best for a Oromo people – democratizing a Abyssinian-Ethiopian sovereignty or to giveaway Oromiyaa from this majestic yoke. Below, a brief examination of a Empire’s Democratization Period will be presented next by resisting it opposite USA and Borana democracies as good as tellurian lessons for anti-colonial leisure struggles.
Conquest and Colonization It was some 134 years ago that Oromiyaa fell underneath Abyssinian colonization; some Oromo nationalists take a 1876 Boru Meda Summit in Wallo – between Atse (King of Kings) Yohannes of Abyssinia (originally, King of Tigray), and King Menelik of Shewa – to be a commencement of a Abyssinian defeat and colonization of Oromiyaa. It was during a 1876 Boru Meda Summit that an agreement was reached, between a dual Abyssinian Kings, on how to order Oromiyaa’s northernmost domain of Wallo (including Rayaa – now partial of Debubawi Zone of Tigray), and also on how to enslave a people of Wallo to eremite and racial oppression.
With a tumble of Wallo as a backdrop, a rest of Oromiyaa was shortly cowed and colonized by Atse Menelik, who had turn a King of Kings of Abyssinia after a genocide of Atse Yohannes. After a conquest, a Gadaa confederates of Oromiyaa were brutally crushed, and a Gadaa complement abolished – solely in Borana, where a Gadaa complement is still alive; Borana lied on a limit distant divided from a colonial centers in Nairobi, Finfinne and Khartoum during a Scramble for Africa (including Oromiyaa) – that could have been one of a reasons that a Gadaa complement has survived compartment this day.
Since a tumble of a whole Oromiyaa, i.e. some 120 years ago, there have been usually 6 rulers of a Abyssinian-Ethiopian sovereignty – namely, Atse Menelik (1889-1913), Lij Iyasu (1913-1916), Empress Zewditu (1916-1930), Atse Haile-Selassie (1930-1974), Colonel Mengistu (1974-1991) and Atse Meles Zenawi (1991-Present) – some cruise 1991 a year when a Abyssinian majestic energy was returned to a House of Tigray – after about a 100-year underneath a House of Shewa.
Democratization Period Out of those 120-years of a stream Abyssinian-Ethiopian empire, a duration after 1931 could be taken as a Democratization Period of a Empire – given it was a initial time that a Empire introduced, on a amiability of His Imperial Majesty, a Constitution to oversee a Empire – a land and a subjects. In other words, for a final 81 years, a Empire has been on a highway to democratizing itself. During this Democratization Period, however, usually 3 rulers have been in energy – any earnest a splendid and approved destiny for a Empire, though instead, delivering some-more hardship on individuals, nations and peoples in a Empire. In many aspects, compared to a rest of a universe (using indices, such as a Democracy Index and a Freedom Index), a Empire has turn some-more heartless and odious with time.
In a hopes of democratizing a Abyssinian-Ethiopian empire, a 3 rulers had given 4 Constitutions (1931, 1955, 1987 and 1995) to a peoples – a subjects of a Empire; however, a autarchic energy of a land complacent on a 3 individuals, who have ruled over a Empire with iron fist. In 2012 capricious arrests, extrajudicial killings, rejection of leisure of speech, rejection of leisure of gathering, rejection of leisure of organisation are as common as they were in 1931, when a immature aristocrat betrothed to lead a land to a complicated era, or in 1974, when a immature Colonel betrothed to lead a land to a revolutionary era.
Here’s a impressive illustration of a Empire’s highway to democracy of a final 81 years – compared to a democracies of a USA and a Borana. Over a final 81 years, a USA has had 13 presidents, and a Borana has had 10 Abba Gadaa’s while a Abyssinian-Ethiopian sovereignty has had usually 3 rulers, with a third one still clinching to energy with no transition to democracy in sight. While a energy transfers between presidents and Abba Gadaa’s have been peaceful, both transitions in Ethiopia (i.e. from Atse Haile-Selassie to Colonel Mengistu, and from a Colonel to Atse Meles) during a Democratization Period have been violent, and nearby destiny transitions are already likely to be violent. What’s more, any ruler of a Abyssinian-Ethiopian sovereignty came with some-more comprehensive energy and with some-more comprehensive fear of democracy than his predecessor.
(Photos of Abba Gadaa’s Guyyo Boru (1944-52), Madha Galma (1952-60) and Jaldessa Liban (1960-68) – pleasantness of Asmarom Legesse’s Oromo Democracy)
The Future As with a stream Constitution, given to a nations, nationalities and peoples in a Empire by Atse Meles Zenawi, a articles in all of a other Constitutions were conjunction implemented nor taken to be a autarchic law of a land. The 1987 Constitution of Colonel Mengistu Haile-Mariam betrothed total tellurian rights while a regime was slaughtering thousands believed to be dissidents of a regime; a same with a 1931, a 1955 and a stream – 1995 Constitutions.
Today, rulers and elites – forward from those benefaction during a 1876 Boru Meda Summit, are believed to be disagreeing over their share of a majestic power. Some nationalists claim that a argue is not on how to best pierce to democracy, though on how to serve barricade a Abyssinian mastery over a colonized South in a Empire. For those oppressed and colonized in a South, a try to democratize this Empire has been, not usually self-deception, though also farcical.
It suffices to discuss that, during a final century, large nations have liberated themselves from colonizers of all kinds. From a mass decolonization of black Africa in a mid-20′s century to a leisure of Eritrea (from a Abyssinian-Ethiopian sovereignty itself) to a leisure of South Sudan, some-more than 50 nations, in Africa alone, have clinched feat after extreme anti-colonial fights.
Many Oromo nationalists contend that these strenuous evidences uncover that Oromiyaa’s onslaught to be giveaway from a Abyssinian-Ethiopian majestic border of a final 134 years, rather than stability a 81-year farcical try of democratizing a Empire, contingency be dismissed adult until feat is clinched by a Oromo people. Accordingly, a giveaway Oromiyaa – embracing Gadaa democracy, formed on a one used currently in a Borana, will be a guide of freedom, wish and assent in a Horn of Africa – and for all amiability around a world